Rabu, 13 November 2013

Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct And Indirect Speech

Direct Speech (Kalimat Langsung) ialah kata-kata kalimat yang diucapkan langsung oleh si pembicara.

Indirect Speech (Kalimat Tak Langsung) ialah kalimat yang diucapkan untuk melaporkan kata-katansi pembicara kepada orang lain. Jadi, Indirect Speech (Reported Speech) digunakan bila kita ingin melaporkan kata-kata seseorang kepada orang lain secara tak langsung.

Direct & Indirect Speech terdiri dari 3 jenis yaitu :
I.         Statement (pernyataan)
II.      Command (perintah)
III.   Question (pertanyaan)

Perubahan-perubahan yang perlu dari Direct ke Indirect Speech :
1.        To be & Auxiliary Verbs
Direct                                       Indirect
Am/is/are -             was/were
Shall/will -             should/would
Can                      -             c ould
May                     -             might
Must                     -
Have/has to         -             had to
Ought to

2.        Time & Place (keterangan waktu & tempat)
Direct                                       Indirect
now -           then
tomorrow -           the following day
next week -           the following week
tonight -           that night
today -           that day
yesterday -           the day before
last night -           the night before
last week -           the week before,
 the precious week
here -           there
this                 -           that
these           -           those

3.        Tenses
Direct                                       Indirect
Simple present -        simple past
Simple past -        past perfect
Present -    perfect
Present continous -        past continous
Present perfect 
continous   -        past perfect continous
Simple future -        past future

I.         STATEMENT
Dalam Indirect Statement kita menggunakan kata that (bahwa) sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar (introduce phrase) dan kata-kata yang dilaporkan (reported words). Kalimat-kalimat pengantar dalam indirect statement ialah :

He said
He said to me                    that + reported words
He told me

e.g  - Mary told her friends “I have been to Bali twice.”
Mary told her friends that she had been to Bali twice.
Father said “I am going out of town tomorrow”
Father said that he was going out of town the following day.
Mary told John “my father warned me last night”
Mary told John that her father had arned her the night before.
My sister said to me “I don’t like tennis”
My sister said to me that she didn’t like tennis.
Tom said “I didn’t go to school this morning”
Tom said that he hadn’t gone to school that morning.

Apabila kalimat pengantarnya dalam bentuk Simple Present Tense, maka kalimat yang dilaporkan tidak mengalami perubahan.

e.g  - John says “I will go to Bandung tomorrow”
John says that he will go to Bandung tomorrow
Mary says “I have seen that film”
Mary says that she has seen that film.
My brother says “I met Tom at the party last night”
My brother says that he met Tom at the party last night.
Tom says “I don’t like English”
Tom says that he don’t like English.

Command dibagi dalam 2 (dua) bagian yaitu :
1.      Positive Command
Dalam perintah positif kita tambahkan to di depan kalimat perintahnya, sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar dan perintah yang dilaporkan. Kalimat-kalimat pengantar dalam jenis ini ialah :
to + infinitive
He asked me
He told me
e.g   - He asked me “Open your book”
He asked me to open my book.
Mary told me “Stop talking to Jane”
Mary told me to stop talking to Jane.
Mother asked John “Pay attention to what I say”
Mother asked John to pay attention to what she says.
John told Mary “Wait until I come”
John told Mary to wait until he comes.
The teacher said to the students “Be quiet while I am talking”
The teacher told the students to be quiet while she is talking.
2.      Negative Command
Dalam  perintah negatif kita tambahkan not  to di depan perintah yang dilaporkan.
e.g   - Mary told John “Don’t wait for me”
Mary told John not to wait for her.
I told him “Don’t mention it to anyone”
I told him not to mention it to anyone.
Father asked her “Don’t go there alone”
Father asked her not to go there alone.
Ira asked Tom “Don’t come to my house again”
Ira asked tom not to come to her house again.
Mothers asked John “Don’t smoke too much”
Mother asked John not to smoke too much.

Bila pertanyaan langsung (direct question) menggunakan kata-kata tanya seperti ; Where, When, Why, What, Who, How, dll, maka kata-kata tersebut digunakan sebagai penghubung dalam reported Speech. Pertanyaan yang dilaporkan berubaha menjadi bentuk positif. Kalimat pengantarnya ialah :

Positive Form
He asked me       where
When etc.  
e.g   - The man asked me : “Where do you live ?”
The man asked me where I lived.
John asked Mary : “Why do you get angry with me ?”
John asked Mary why she got angry with him.
I asked him : “When did you get back from your trip ?”
I asked him when he had got back from his trip.
He asked me : “How will you go there ?”
He asked me how I would go there.
John asked the girl : “What is your name ?”
John asked the girl what her name was.

Bila pertanyaan langsung tidak menggunakan kata-kata tanya, dan hanya merupakan pertanyaan dalam bentuk “Yes & No Question”, maka kita menggunakan kata-kata if, whether (jika, apakah) sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar dan pertanyaan yang dilaporkan.

e.g   - The boy asked John : “Does Mary live near  here?”
The boy asked John if Mary lived near there.
The teacher asked her : “Have you finish your homework ?”
The teacher asked her if he had finished her homework.
Mary asked me : “Did you she John at the party the night before.
Mary asked me whether I had seen John at the party the night before.
We asked them : “Will you go to the movie with us tonight ?”
We asked them whether they would go to the movie with us that night.
Mother asked John : “Are you going to marry her ?”
Mother asked John if he was going to marry her.

Note :    Baik if maupun whether dapat digunakan bergantian

Bila pertanyaan dan pernyataan digabung dalam Reported Speech maka kita menggunakan kata as (karena) sebagai penghubung pada bagian kalimat pernyataan yang dilaporkan. Dalam hal ini kalimat pernyataan tersebut dilaporkan kemudian. Perhatikanlah contoh-contoh berikut ini :
e.g   - She asked me :”What is the time ?”, my watch has stopped.
She asked me what the time was as her watch had stopped.
Ira asked John :”what is the matter with you ?”, You don’t look well.
Mary asked John what the matter was with him as he didn’t look well.
I asked her :”How long have you been studying English ?”, Your accent is very good.
I asked her how long she had been studying English as he her accent was very good.
He told me :”I am off to the movie,” Where are you going ?”
He told me that he was off to the movie and asked me where I was going.
She said :”It is cold inside,” Is the window open ?
She said that it was cold inside and asked if the window was open.

 Bila dalam pertanyaan langsung disertai dengan jawaban Yes dan No, maka kita menggunakan kata but sebagai penghubung untuk jawaban No dan kata and sebagai penghubung untuk jawaban Yes.
e.g   - He asked me :”Will you go out wiith me ?” No, I won’t.
He asked me if I would go out with him but I said I wouldn’t.
Mother asked John :”Have you had lunch ?” No, I haven’t.
Mother asked John if he had had lunch but he said he hadn’t.
She asked me :”Can you meet me tomorrow ?” No.
She asked me if I could meet her the following day but I said I couldn’t.
I asked her :”Do you like vegetables ?” Yes, I do.
Is asked her if she liked veggetables and she said she did.
Mary asked John :”Did you phone me last night ?” Yes, I did.
Mary asked John if he had phoned her the night before and he said he had.
Father asked me :”Are you going to the movie tonight ?” Yes.
Father asked me if I was going to the movie that night and I said I was.
Direct & Indirect with Auxiliaries
Perhatikan perubahan-perubahan yang perlu dari Auxiliaries
Direct                                       Indirect
Was/were -           had been
Can -           could
May -           might
must & have to -           had to
must not -           wasn’t to/musn’t
needn’t -           didn’t have to

e.g -  Mary said :” I was sick yesterday.”
Mary said that she had been sick the day before.
The man asked me :” Can you speak English ?”
The man asked me if I could speak English.
Mary said to John :”You may come to my house tomorrow.”
Mary said to John that she might come to his house the following day.
Mother told John :”You must study harder if you want to pass the exam.”
Mother told John that he had to study harder if he wanted to pass the exam.
The police told me :” You must not drive without license.”
The police told me that I wasn’t to drive without license.”
The teacher told them :”You needn’t hurry.”
The teacher told them that they didn’t have to hurry.

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